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雅思写作怎样写出高分文章?

必威 www.017xhd.cn 2019-07-17 15:34     供稿单位: 新航道    

出国英语考试有哪些 雅思6.5是什么水平 雅思阅读评分标准 托福阅读评分标准 雅思和托福的区别

  对于万千小烤鸭们来说,写作无疑是最令人头疼的一项。尤其是当考题是关于文化类时, 往往是大家非常头疼的一类题目了。究其原因的话,无非就是没有思路,不知道写什么,不知道怎么展开,因此也会导致写不够字数。所以,我们现在就针对这个问题进行一下解析, 从而将文化类话题拿下。


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典型例题示范:

  下面是我们在备考雅思过程中经??吹降募父鲇胛幕嘞喙氐奶饽?,包括 museum,old buildings,international travel 和 languages 等问题。

  ·Some people claim that government should fund museums and art galleries.  To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  ·Should old buildings be destroyed and replaced with modern ones?

  ·Do the problems brought by international travel outweigh the advantages?

  ·Several languages are dying out every year. Some people do not think it is important and say that our life will be simpler with fewer languages. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  在学生的作文中我们经?;峥吹秸庋木渥踊蚨温洌?/p>

  e.g.1: Museums should be built by the government, because the museum is an important part of our culture. So the government should spend money constructing museums.

  e.g.2: International travels can bring many benefits to us. To begin with,     we can know more about foreign cultures, which can broaden our horizons. In addition, traveling can promote the development of local economy.

  e.g.3: Dying out of several languages is harmful for the culture, because

  language is an important part of culture.

  e.g.4: Destroying old buildings is harmful for the local culture, because these buildings are an important part of local culture.

  看过这几个段落,大家不难发现其中存在的一个共同问题:观点扩充不够,论证不充分, 导致内容空洞,思维跳跃,没有说服力。这是因为有些学生确实想到了某些观点,但是每每写到这个观点时,便觉得这是理所当然,没有必要再去解释。这就是跳跃式思维在写作中一个比较典型的体现。除此之外,导致这种思维出现的另外一个原因就是觉得没有什么可写,也就是素材积累的问题了,即素材的缺乏导致了内容的空洞。其实,想要解决上述的问题,并不难, 只要通过简单的三部曲即可。现在,我们就来看一下,如何进行这三部曲。


具体三部曲:

  Step 1:定位名词,即句子中的抽象名词或概括名词

  回顾上述几个句子,虽然有很多名词,如 museum,travel,language 和 old buildings, 但是比较抽象或者是概括的名词只有 culture。

  Step 2:具体化,即找到概括名词在生活中的具体体现

  例如: 在 Wikipedia, 我们可以查到,Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Some aspects of human behavior,  social practices such   as culture, expressive forms such as art, music, dance, ritual, and religion, and technologies such as tool usage, cooking, shelter, and clothing are said to be cultural universals, found in all human societies. 所以, 当我们看到 museum 或 old buildings 时,我们可以具体到 art works,some rituals,some original tools;当我们看到 travel 时,我们可以具体到 cooking,shelter,clothing 等等。有了这样的积累之后,在我们写到 widen one's horizon 或 be harmful for culture 时,我们便能够继续写下去。

  Step 3:引导词 + 具体化内容

  引出具体化内容的副词或是词组有很多,比如 specifically,to be specific 等。

  e.g.1: International traveling should be encouraged greatly since it can widen

  our views. Specifically, we can see lots of traditional arts while traveling to other countries, which can improve our understanding of locals' lifestyle, their customs, beliefs, and traditions, helping us relate to the their culture past, enlarging our horizons.

  e.g.2: Museums deserve financial support from the government, since they are

  always attached to local culture. Specifically, we can see lots of traditional arts in museums, which can deepen our understanding of ancestors' past, their customs, beliefs, and traditions, helping us relate to the our past, enhancing our sense of belonging.

  e.g.3: Dying out of certain languages can bring potential negative influence on preserving certain culture, since language is one of the indispensable aspects of a culture. Specifically, via using or learning a language, we can expose ourselves to lots of traditional arts, literature  works, which can deepen our understanding of ancestors' past, their customs, beliefs, and traditions, helping us relate to the our past,  enhancing  our sense of belonging.

  通过以上段落,不难发现多数文化类题目在写作过程中,我们可以将 culture 具体成 lifestyle,customs,beliefs,traditional arts 或 literature works 等,将这些内容用于 expand horizons 的论证中就可以在一定程度上避免内容空洞,思维跳跃的问题。了解完这些之后,亲爱的烤鸭们会发现文章内容确实充实不少,但是组成一段还是不够,所以一般情况下我们还需要 point,例如下面这段:

  International travels can bring many benefits to us. To begin with, we can know more about foreign cultures, which can broaden our horizons. In addition, traveling can promote the development of local economy.

  我们上面已经补充了关于 broaden our horizons 的具体内容,接下来我们再来看一下另外一个 point。很明显,另外的一个 point 中的抽象或概括名词是 economy。An economy is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents(from Wikipedia),所以我们也很容易能够想到被旅游业所推动的经济增长点,如 accommodation,catering,retailing 等。所以关于 promote local economy,我们可以做出以下扩展:

  Traveling can promote the development of local economy. Specifically,as tourists flock in, the extra demand for food, accommodation and other goods or services will boost related industries, generating more job opportunities for local residents and creating revenues for the government.

  这样需要具体化的名词在雅思写作过程中我们还会遇到很多,如 happiness,job satisfaction 等,大家可以通过查询 Wikipedia 或相关工具书获得。当然,在写做课堂讲解过程中,也会有大量的补充。总之,通过将名词具体化,利用三部曲,多积累,多应用, 小烤鸭们写作一定能打破 5.5 分的魔咒。


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